While the Afghan military did not give an exact figure of the dead and injured, the Balkh Provincial Council in its statement said over 100 soldiers had been killed and more than 60 others were wounded in the incident.
Planning took four to six months, he said, adding that American military officials believed that the 10 Taliban fighters who opened fire on the base had inside help, because they knew that Afghan soldiers there would have put down their weapons to attend prayers.
The Trump administration is considering whether to make changes to the United States mission training and advising Afghan forces, and conducting raids against militant groups including ISIL.
The US has around 8,400 troops while another 5,000 other North Atlantic Treaty Organisation troops are helping Afghan forces battle the Taliban and Islamic State group.
Afghans have slammed the government over the attack, though Habibi told a press conference Monday his resignation was voluntary.
"At this point we nearly don't need to talk about safe havens in Pakistan, because they have safe havens in Afghanistan".
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The official said the latest Afghan estimate of 144 Afghan soldiers killed is likely to rise.
The attack, the latest in a series of brazen Taliban assaults, underscores the insurgents' growing strength more than 15 years since they were ousted from power by the U.S. invasion of 2001.
Mattis said he expects an ongoing dialogue with the Afghan leadership in order to provide his best assessment and advice to US President Donald Trump.
By the end, at least five attackers were killed and one was arrested, Afghan army spokesman Abdul Qahar Araam said.
Mattis said the majority of the Afghan people rejected the Taliban and do not want to see them again in power.
Since the end of the NATO-led combat mission in Afghanistan in 2014, much of the worldwide troops are confined to the Advisory, Assistance and Train Mission.
There were no immediate reports of casualties.
The Taliban have stepped up their attacks against both Afghan forces and civilians since foreign combat troops pulled out of the country at the end of 2014, leaving only an advisory and training contingent of worldwide forces.